The F-16 Fighting Falcon has a complex design utilizing high power GE or Pratt & Whitney jet engine, and a powerful M61A1 Vulcan Machine gun, allowing incredible superiority over enemy fighters

With a Pratt and Whitney F100-P-229 turbofan engine Or a more powerful General Electric engine , the F-16 can reach an impressive top speed of 1303 knots (1500 mph) and a range of over 2,000 miles

Armed with a 20mm M61A1 Vulcan six-barrel gun loaded with up to 515 high explosive or armor piercing rounds, The F-16 can fire 600 shots per second 

1 (airspeed gauge)

This is mounted off the front of the aircraft and measures the airspeed

2 (radar)

The F-16s AN/APG-66 radar is contained within the nose-cone of the F-16, providing radar coverage in front of the aircraft

3 (refueling door)

The refeuling door is placed on the top of the aircraft behind the canopy for aerial refeuling on long missions or when there is not time to land.

U.S. Air Force photo by Airman 1st Class Mason Hargrove

4 (flaperons)

These flight control surfaces control the roll & pitch of the aircraft and also double as flaps

5 (engine air intake)

The large engine of the F-16 needs a lot of air to produce high thrust. The large air intake off the bottom of the fusealage provides that air.

6 (wing mounted missile launcher)

F-16 pylon diagram

This is a LAU (Missile Launcher Rail) permanently mounted at the end of the wing (points 9 & 1) that can launch AIM-9 Sidewinder missiles or AIM-120 AMRAAM missiles (points 9, 8, 7, 3, 2, & 1). Additionaly, the F-16 has 7 more hard points to mount armaments and fuel, the centerline on the bottom of the fuselage primarily holds a fuel tank, while the outer two to either side of the fuselage hold anything from fuel to bombs. The other 4 on the bottom of the wings (7, 6, 4, & 3) can hold a wide assortment of air-to-air, air-to-ground, and anti-ship armaments, these include AIM-120s, Mark82-84 dumb bombs, and AGM-119 Penguins. (5R & 5L hold various sensors)

For more detailed information visit the Kleine-Brogel Air Base Website
Armament data from Wikipedia

7 (gear)

The landing gear of the F-16, as with all airforce aircraft, are light. This allows for them to not weigh the aircraft down too much, but makes them more delicate in comparison to the gear of Navy aircraft such as the F-18 Hornet

8 (ventral fins)

The ventral fins stick out below the F-16 on either side behind the landing gear to provide more stable flight by reducing the yaw of the aircraft.

Ventral Fins

9 (countermeasure dispensers)

countermeasures (chaff & flare) are dispensed from square doors behind the wing

F-16 dispensing flares U.S. Air Force photo/Staff Sgt. Brian J. Valencia

10 (engine actuator nozzle)

The engine actuator nozzle (also reffered to as turkey feathers) contracts and extends to change the size of the engine opening, making a very distinctive noise (this noise only occurs on the P&W engines)

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